10 common diagnostic tests in urology | Updated 2023
This article describes various diagnostic procedures most commonly recommended by urologists to analyze the health of the urinary system. Here is to guide you with a urology test list. Cash.
- urine analysis – It is the simplest analysis of urine. Different components of the urine are examined using different techniques. A microscopic examination of the urine sample is done to look for abnormal organisms, blood cells, or inflammatory cells that may indicate cancer, urinary tract infections, or other urinary disorders. This is commonly used to analyze lower urinary tract health.
- Kidney, Ureter, Bladder (KUB) X-ray – Generally it is the first in-line test to find out some abnormalities in the urinary system. During the procedure, X-rays are focused on the abdominal areas to be examined. The computer-assisted images are printed out for review by the doctor. The KUB X-ray is a simple test that is performed on an outpatient basis.
- Abdominal/Kidney Ultrasound – It is an imaging test that uses ultrasound waves to examine the kidneys and bladder. A less invasive procedure that involves applying a clear gel to the skin of the abdomen and then passing a small handheld probe over that area to view the organs. Images appear on the screen and are printed as a movie.
- bladder biopsy – It is performed when there is a suspicion of cancer cells in the bladder. The patient is given anesthesia, then a thin tube with an attached camera and light (called a cystoscope) is inserted into the bladder to take a sample of tissue from the bladder wall. These are examined under the microscope to analyze the presence of diseases. Patients may experience mild pain that will go away after a few days.
- Computed tomography (CT) scan – It is an imaging technique that uses computers and X-rays to create three-dimensional images of the body’s internal organs and tissues. In urology, a CT scan is used to diagnose abnormalities in the kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder and the vessels attached to them. It’s a safe technique, but sometimes patients may experience flushing and nausea or vomiting, which is possible
- Intravenous pyelogram/urogram – It is an X-ray examination of the upper urinary tract including the kidneys, urethra and ureters. This diagnostic technique uses a special dye that is injected into the veins and then transported through the bloodstream and throughout the urinary system to excrete the urine. It gives a clear view of the health and function of the urinary system. In particular, the program is used by doctors to test a bladder with kidney stones, tumors, cysts, narrowing of the ureters and an enlarged prostate.
- cystoscopy – A cystoscope is a thin flexible tube with a light and an attached camera that is inserted into the bladder to help doctors see the lower urinary tract including the bladder, urethra and prostate. It helps diagnose urological conditions such as bladder cancer, chronic pelvic pain, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and urinary incontinence. When used on an outpatient basis, patients may experience mild side effects such as burning or blood in the urine, which disappear after 2-3 days.
- Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) – The prostate produces a protein called PSA, which is detected in the blood. The high blood levels of this protein indicate abnormal prostate diseases such as inflammation, infection and benign prostatic hyperplasia.
- prostate biopsy – It is an important test to confirm prostate cancer in men. Prostate biopsy is done after abnormally high levels of PSA in the blood or irregular rectal exam results are found.
- Urodynamic tests – It is a combination of several tests to assess the function and efficiency of the lower urinary tract including the bladder and urethra. This is the most common urological test used to diagnose urinary problems such as frequent urination, urine leakage, painful urination, or problems emptying the bladder completely. It is also recommended for patients with enlarged prostates to confirm bladder outlet obstruction (BOO).
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