Determine the number of gross receipts: the total proceeds from the sale of goods or services. Find the amount of net income: the total income from the sale of goods or services minus the cost of returned goods (services) and any discounts provided to customers. Calculate the total cost of manufacturing goods and providing services included in the cost of goods. Find the measure of the company’s gross profit, the difference between net sales and the cost of goods sold or services rendered. The gross profit formula looks like the difference between net profit and production costs.
Determine the net profit indicator. To do this, taxes, penalties, penalties, interest on loans, and operating expenses must be deducted from gross profit. The latter include the costs of finding partners, closing transactions, improving the qualifications of employees, and the costs due to force majeure situations. The net profit indicator only reflects the result of the company’s activities. It shows how good the performance of this type of activity is. Entrepreneurs use the net profit to increase working capital, form various funds and reserves and reinvest in production. The amount of the net profit is directly dependent on the amount of the gross profit and the number of tax payments. If the company is a limited liability company, the dividends for the company’s shareholders are calculated based on the amount of the net profit.
Among the main functions of profit, the incentive can be highlighted. She is the primary source of a cash injection, and the company benefits from her maximization. This will positively affect the growth of the salaries of the company’s employees and, the renewal rate of fixed assets, the introduction of the latest technologies. As a result, there is an increase in production. The amount of the benefit is not only directly crucial for the company but also the industry and the state. Thanks to the profits of companies, budgets of different levels are formed. It is used to pay taxes to the state budget. In market relationships, profit has a valuation function. The level affects the value of the company and its competitiveness in the industry. The gain control function is also distinguished. The lack of profit means that the company is not profitable. As you can see, it is imperative to focus on the size of the profit, which means that you only need to know the formula for the analysis of economic activity.
In addition to the general profit indicator, there are several types. For example, according to scholarly sources, there are profits from sales (of the revenue to be deducted from the cost of production), from transactions in securities (a positive difference between the revenue and expenditure from the transactions from the sale of securities), non-sales (the amount of profit from the sale of goods, sale of real estate, etc. based on the results of non-operating transactions), from investments and financial activities. To find income from investing activities, you must subtract the cost of operating the investment project from the amount of net cash for the investment project, interest income and income from equity investments in other companies, less interest payable and operating expenses.
According to the calculation method applied in a particular company, it is possible to distinguish the marginal, net and gross profit. To find the marginal profit, you must subtract the variable costs from the revenue. Depending on how taxes are paid, there are taxable and non-taxable incomes. Taxable profit is income minus income for which payments are not deducted from the budget. In order to calculate this, it is necessary to deduct the property tax, income from additional assessments and profit aimed at profit transactions from the balance sheet income. Economic analysis uses past earnings, reports, schedule periods, and nominal and actual earnings. The nominal profit is the profit stated in the annual accounts and corresponds to the balance sheet profit. The real profit is nominal profit adjusted for inflation, correlated with the consumer price index. Financiers also used the concept of capitalized profit (intended to increase equity) and retained earnings, which is the final financial result of fewer taxes and other liabilities.
Not only external factors can influence the profit level. The company must take measures for its growth. A more efficient management system also contributes to higher profits. For example, you can optimize inventory and inventory balances, analyze product assortment, identify products that are not in demand and remove them from circulation. Other measures include the automation of production to reduce labour costs and the use of zero-waste production.