How to make links from the internet in the bibliography | Education 2022

Electronic documents are recognized as complete sources of information. They are cited in popular publications, academic research, student courses, and graduation projects. Links to Internet resources are established following GOST 7.82-2001 “Bibliographic Description of Electronic Resources” and GOST 7.0.5-2008 “Bibliographic Reference. General Requirements and Rules for Drafting”.

How to make links from the internet in the bibliography
How to make links from the internet in the bibliography

It is needed

  • – a computer;
  • – Internet access.


Step 1

Determine the type of document you are citing. You can link to the site as a whole, a separate webpage, an online book or part thereof, an online magazine or an article from it, etc. The composition of the description depends on the type of document.

Step 2

Always post the link in the original language. For example, if you cite an article from an American Internet magazine, provide information about it in the bibliography in English only. Only take input from the document itself to describe the document. Carefully study the home page of the site and the web area in which the publication is located. If you cannot find an item in the description, please skip it. 

Step 3

Remember the essential information to provide when linking to an Internet resource:

1. The author of the publication. The description indicates the last name and initials without decoding: “Ivanov II.” Please note that the author must be the creator of the text you quote, not the website. This element is followed by a period in the description.

2. Title of the document. Here you must enter the title of a specific publication or web page. For example: “10 ways to get rich” or “Answers from city aid.”

3. The type of document. Use the standard wording “electronic source.” This element is enclosed in square brackets: [Electronic resource]†

4. Statement of Responsibility. The authors of the publication are listed here if there are more than three or the organization that created the electronic document. Usually used when describing books. A slash precedes this element of the description. For example, “/ II Ivanov, VV Petrov, SS Sidorov, IK Kirillov,” or “/Research Institute of Ophthalmology.”


5. Information about the main document. Used when compiling descriptions of parts of books or articles from magazines. Two slashes precede the element. For example, “// Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences.”

6. Place and date of publication. This element looks like this for books: “M., 2011”. In the description of electronic articles, state the year and number of the journal: “2011. Number 3”.

7. Comments. Indicate information essential for understanding the specifics of the Internet document: system requirements for viewing the page (e.g., the need for a graphical editor), restriction of access to the resource (e.g., after paid registration), etc.

8. E-mail address and date of access to the document. Enter the abbreviation URL, replacing the Russian expression “Access Mode.” Then enter the full HTTP address of the site or a separate page. In parentheses, write the date you visited this Internet resource, for example: “(Date of access: 25/12/2011)”. It is always desirable to indicate a specific number since electronic documents often change “registration” or disappear altogether. 

Step 4

Check out the following examples of the most common links to Internet documents. Then, please write a description of the paper you cite based on one of them.

Step 5

Link to the whole site

Moscow State University MV Lomonosov: [Electronic resource]† M., 1997-2012. URL: (Date of access: 18.02.2012).

Link to webpage

Information for applicants: [Electronic resource] // Moscow State University. MV Lomonosov. M., 1997-2012. URL: (Date of access: 18.02.2012).

Step 6

Link to the online magazine

Secretary assistant. 2011. No. 7: [Electronic resource]† URL: (Date of access: 18.02.2012).

Link to online article

Kameneva EM Document Registration Forms: // Secretary Assistant. 2011. No. 7. URL: (Date of access: 18.02.2012).

Step 7

Link to online book 

Stepanov V.Internet in professional information activities: [Electronic resource]† 2002-2006. URL: (Date of access: 18.02.2012).

Link to part of the online book

Stepanov V. Electronic documents Internet: description and citation: [Electronic resource] // Stepanov V. Internet in professional information activities. 2002-2006. URL: (Date of access: 18.02.2012).

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