What are the exact sciences?
It is common to refer to the exact sciences as sciences such as chemistry, physics, astronomy, mathematics, and computer science. Historically, the exact sciences paid particular attention to inanimate nature. Recently they said that the science of living nature, biology, will be able to become more accurate because it increasingly uses the same methods as in chemistry, physics, etc. In biology, there is an exact section related to the exact sciences: genetics.
Mathematics is fundamental science on which many other sciences are based. It is believed to be exact, although theorem proofs sometimes use assumptions that cannot be proven.
Computer science is the science of methods of obtaining, accumulating, storing, transferring, transforming, protecting, and using information. Since computers make all this possible, computer science is associated with computer technology. It encompasses various disciplines related to information processing, such as programming language development, algorithm analysis, etc.
What makes the exact sciences different?
The exact sciences study the detailed laws, phenomena, and objects of nature, which can be measured using established methods and devices and described using clearly defined concepts. Hypotheses are based on experimentation and logical reasoning and are thoroughly tested.
The exact sciences are usually concerned with numerical values, formulas, and unambiguous conclusions. For example, if we take physics, the laws of physics work in the same way under the same conditions. In the humanities, such as philosophy and sociology, everyone can have his own opinion on most issues and justify them. Still, it is difficult for him to prove that this opinion is the only correct one. The subjectivity factor is strongly expressed in the humanities. The results of the measurement of the exact sciences are verifiable. That is, they are objective.
The essence of the exact sciences can be well understood through the example of computer science and programming, where the algorithm “if-then – if not” is used. The algorithm implies a precise sequence of actions to achieve a specific result.
Scientists and researchers continue to make discoveries in various fields, and many phenomena and processes on planet Earth and in the universe remain unexplored. Because of this, we can assume that even any human science could become accurate if there were methods that would reveal and prove all hitherto unexplained regularities. Meanwhile, people do not have such plans, so they have to be content with reasoning and drawing conclusions based on experience and observations.